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Ontology is a branch of metaphysics which is concerned with being, including theories of the nature and kinds of being. Monistic ontologies hold that there is only one being, such as  Spinoza’s theory that God or Nature is the only substance. Pluralistic ontologies hold that there is no unity to Being and that there are numerous kinds of being. Dualism is a kind of pluralistic ontology, maintaining that there are two fundamental kinds of  being: mind and body.

further reading

ontology and metaphysics - the Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind

ontology - Catholic Encyclopedia

Last updated 27-Oct-2015

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